Coal Bed Methane and Shale Gas Evaluation & Development

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Code Start Date End Date Location Cost Instructor Register
PST0247-201501  Oct 05, 2015  Oct 09, 2015  Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  SGD 5995  Steve Hennings   Register
PST0247-201401  Apr 21, 2014  Apr 25, 2014  Bali, Indonesia  SGD 5995  Steve Hennings 
PST0247  Sep 23, 2013  Sep 27, 2013  Bandung, Indonesia  SGD 5995  Steve Hennings 
        Aaron A. Zick, Ph.D. 

This 5-day course is designed for technical professionals involved in evaluating or developing unconventional gas reservoirs. Unconventional reservoirs represent the largest gas resource in the world and in the past few years they became the major source of natural gas production in North America. As a result, unconventional reservoirs are now receiving a tremendous amount of attention from various countries, oil & gas companies, and investors. Almost all of the university and industry training is directed at conventional reservoirs and so many professionals in the industry are eager to gain a better understanding of the unique terms and concepts involved in evaluating and developing unconventional reservoirs.

The first three days of the course will focus primarily on gas development from Coal (CBM, CSG, CSM) and the final two days will focus on developing Shale Gas. In addition, the evaluation methods for Shale Gas combine methods from Coal, Oil and Tight reservoir development and so attendees will also gain a good understanding of a variety of different ongoing plays and the methods applied to each type of unconventional reservoir.

Class examples are planned for each day and so attendees will need to bring either a laptop or calculator to solve simple equations. The case studies and class examples will present the steps to determining; resource volumes, maximum allowable investments, recovery factors, specific well locations, appropriate hydraulic frac size, and reserve volumes for unconventional reservoirs. The data for the example problems will come from actual development projects, primarily those where the instructor has been involved, to help illustrate the quality and types of data usually available for evaluation.

Attendees are assumed to have a reasonably good understanding of terms and methods applied in the development of conventional oil and gas fields as the course will focus on those items that are fairly unique to unconventional reservoirs.


  • Emergence and Status of Coal Gas
  • Determining Net Coal
  • Adsorption Isotherms
  • Level of Maturity
  • Gas Composition Variability
  • Coal Stress and Continuity
  • Log Responses in Coal
  • Core Analysis
  • Coal Permeability
  • Production Characteristics
  • Class Exercise - Calculating Permeability in Coal
  • Water Issues
  • Relative Permeability
  • Permeability Anisotropy
  • Horizontal Well Design
  • Development Considerations
  • Gas Resource Analysis
  • Case Study - Due Diligence on Published Gas-in-Place
  • Class Exercise - Calculating Gas Resource Volumes in Coal
  • Gas Content Analysis
  • Gas Saturation
  • Case Study - Gas Saturation Variability
  • Class Exercise - Determining Maximum Recovery Factors
  • Vertical Well Design
  • Economic Analysis for Resource Plays
  • Completion Options
  • Impact of Pressure Drawdown
  • Pilot Well Objectives
  • Class Exercise - Pilot Well Drawdown Schedule
  • Production Variations
  • Class Exercise - Forecasting Peak Gas Rate
  • Case Study - Production Correlations
  • Workovers
  • Production Forecasting Methods
  • Reserve Estimation
  • Class Exercise - Calculating Gas Reserves in Coal
  • Global Activities
  • Group Exercise on Coal Nomenclature
Day 4
  • Emergence of Shale
  • Key Shale Properties
  • Geologic Factors
  • Evaluation Concepts
  • Adsorption plus Absorption
  • Class Exercise - Absorbed Gas-in-Place
  • Development Windows
  • Pyrolysis Analysis
  • Class Exercise - Shale Oil Resource Volume
  • Log Responses in Shale
  • Exploration Objectives
  • Class Exercise - Calculating Recovery Factors
  • Development Overview
  • Hydraulic Fracturing Technology
  • Fracturing Fluid Additives
  • Well Design Overview
  • Treatment Monitoring
  • Environmental Issues
  • Exploration Differences from Conventional Reservoirs
  • Group Discussion - Key Development Issues
  • Completion Options
  • Case Studies - Production Correlations
  • Class Exercise - Basic Frac Design
  • Rate Forecasting Methods
  • Group Exercise on Shale Nomenclature
  • Current Trends and Future Opportunities
  • Review the key differences in evaluating and developing CBM, Shale and Conventional Reservoirs
  • Understand what determines the commercial potential of a particular CBM play
  • Review the common features of the most successful plays and why each play has required a unique development approach
  • Become familiar with the terminology, technology and emerging trends
  • Review the process of calculating resource volumes, identifying the best development areas, forecasting recoveries, estimating cash flow and determining reserves


  • Reservoir Engineer
  • Petroleum Engineer
  • Geologist
  • Geophysicist
  • Managers

Aaron A. Zick, Ph.D.

Founder and President


President, Zick Technologies (Since 10/93).

Petroleum engineering consulting and software development, specializing in the area of reservoir fluid phase behavior modeling. References available on request. Key achievements:

-Developed numerous equation-of-state and black-oil fluid characterizations for various major oil companies and as a sub-contractor for Pera A/S.

-Recommended phase behavior experimentation and modeling guidelines for several major oil companies.

-Wrote PhazeComp, a new, state-of-the-art program from Zick Technologies for equation-of-state phase behavior modeling, reservoir fluid characterization, and the robust, efficient calculation of minimum miscibility conditions.

-Wrote Streamz, unique Petrostreamz A/S software for translating, manipulating, and managing vast quantities of fluid stream information.

-Designed and helped write Pipe-It, unique Petrostreamz A/S software for managing and manipulating petroleum resources, processes, and projects.

-Taught numerous industry courses on phase behavior, equations of state, reservoir fluid characterization, and miscible gas injection processes.

-Designed and helped implement a new set of equation-of-state routines for the in-house reservoir simulator of a major oil company.

-Advised the architects of a major commercial reservoir simulator on ways to significantly improve their equation-of-state routines.


Director of Research, Reservoir Simulation Research Corporation (6/91–10/93).

Responsible for the research and development of more efficient, accurate, and reliable techniques for modeling reservoir fluid phase behavior within MORE® (a fully-compositional, equation-of-state reservoir simulator). Also responsible for improving three-dimensional visualization of reservoir simulator output, and for occasional consulting work. Key achievements:

-Designed and implemented new equation-of-state solution algorithms for MORE®, improving both efficiency and robustness while using less memory.

-Developed a powerful and flexible interface between MORE® and TECPLOT™ (three-dimensional surface contouring software from AMTEC Engineering).


Senior Principal Research Engineer, ARCO Oil and Gas Company (9/83–5/91).

Developed expertise in reservoir fluid phase behavior, phase behavior modeling, compositional reservoir simulation, and relative permeability modeling.  Designed and analyzed PVT experiments. Created equation-of-state reservoir fluid characterizations. Developed ARCO’s phase behavior modeling software and relative permeability modeling software. Helped develop several of ARCO’s compositional and limited compositional reservoir simulators. Key achievements:

-Discovered the true, condensing/vaporizing mechanism of oil displace­ment by enriched hydrocarbon gases.

-Represented ARCO on the Prudhoe Bay co-owners’ Enhanced Oil Recovery Task Force for the Prudhoe Bay Miscible Gas Project.

-Designed and analyzed most of the PVT and slim-tube experiments for the Prudhoe Bay Miscible Gas Project.

-Created the equation-of-state reservoir fluid characterization adopted by the operating companies for the Prudhoe Bay Miscible Gas Project.

-Developed the miscibility pressure correlations used by the facility operators for the Prudhoe Bay Miscible Gas Project.

-Developed EOSPHASE, a then state-of-the-art program for equation-of-state phase behavior modeling, reservoir fluid characterization, and the robust, efficient calculation of minimum miscibility conditions.

-Developed SLIMTUBE, a special-purpose, equation-of-state simulator for slim-tube displacements.

-Developed new, compositionally-consistent, three-phase relative perme­ability models for ARCO’s compositional simulators and wrote data-fitting software for those models.

-Developed the phase behavior and relative permeability routines for a new, limited compositional reservoir simulator and assisted on other aspects of it.

-Continually added improvements to various in-house reservoir simulators.

-Regularly taught in-house courses on the phase behavior of miscible gas displacement processes.



A. A. Zick, “A Combined Condensing/Vaporizing Mechanism in the Displacement of Oil by Enriched Gases,” presented at the 61st Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, New Orleans, LA (October, 1986).

D. E. Tang and A. A. Zick, “A New Limited Compositional Reservoir Simulator,” presented at the 12th SPE Symposium on Reservoir Simulation, New Orleans, LA (March, 1993).