Code and Standard in Oil & Gas Industry
The code and standard are not necessarily in the form and published, it has a purpose and most importantly, it has a history of why it has been coded and standardized.
The history of compiling code and standards
We are talking about history why finally the code and standard finally emerged, which in this case ASME.
What is ASME?
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) is an American professional association that, in its own words, "promotes the art, science, and practice of multidisciplinary engineering and allied sciences around the globe" via "continuing education, training and professional development, codes and standards, research, conferences and publications, government relations, and other forms of outreach
In 1905, precisely March 20. A boiler explosion occurred at a factory in Brocton, Massachusetts, killing 58 people and injuring 117 workers. This, of course, caused a quarter billion dollar loss. This catastrophic event made the Massachusetts population see the importance of regulations and regulations for the manufacture of a steam boiler, which is none other than for safety reasons.
Besides that, in other cities and states near the explosion, it was realized that this incident could be avoided by the existence of good design, construction, and insulation from boiler or pressure vessels. They began to formulate formulas and regulations for safety purposes. Regulation, a regulation that differs from one state to another often conflicts with one another, finally, manufacturers, vessel makers, realize the difficulty of making a vessel that can be received in one country, but also will be accepted by other countries.
Because of the lack of uniformity, lack of uniformity, making manufacturers and users (buyers) hold meetings held in 1911 on the American Council of engineering engineers, to solve this problem.
Long story short, and this event and meeting three years later was drafted for the first time, ASME Rules for constraints of stationary boilers and for allowable working pressure, as was known for the 1914 edition, which was later adopted in 1915.
Code and standard functions and purposes
The three objectives of the code and the standard are :
- Design Guide
- Uniform Design
- Safety Reason
1. Design Guide
What is a design guide, everyone has their own work experience, each person has their own style. well, if different people do this or design something, then it will be influenced by the style. Can you imagine if he designed a vessel, it would be different for each person, depending on his taste?
If it's just a different design, it might be ok, but what about checking? if he also has his own style, it is possible for all that has been designed to be a comment. Not to mention from the client, the design might change again.
Connecting in the history of ASME above, each state has its own rules and regulations, has its own rules and lines. Because they have their own designs, finally the manufacturer has difficulty making a vessel that can be received in all states.
Now here is the function of the Design Guide of code and standards, so that everyone has the same understanding and rule in designing, there is a code of ethics of their own, there is a guide itself that must be followed together so that the design is as expected.
2. Uniform Design
What do you mean uniform load? like this for example, when you go to a clothing store, you will look for clothes of a certain size, now that size will be the same everywhere. in store A, in-store B, everything will be the same. That is the standard size, so we are not confused in choosing, because the size is standard, with all.
Also, the same case with equipment if we already have unity and agreement in terms of design that is set in code and standards, then in other countries, it will also use the same design. So it can be used globally, in all places and countries have the same standard.
3. Safety reasons
What do you mean by safety reason? the purpose, of course, is safety. Safety has two sides, both the object and the person, the human. Objects can be replaced or hacked, but for life, it can't be driven or even bought. That's where the purpose of code and standards is.
In the code and standard, there are rules, all of which are not necessarily immediately designed but have gone through the stages of testing. Some experts have gathered to formulate something, considering it then doing testing before the code and standard is available to be used by many people. Brush the word, we do not have to bother doing research or testing so that our equipment is safe, but only just follow the code and the standard it is guaranteed safe.
What's the difference between code and standard?
Now, this is the most basic and main, what is the difference between code and standard? before going there, we mentioned first from the original language what is code, and what is the standard?
Now we discuss what code is
Codes are generally the top-tier documents, providing a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for manufactured, fabricated or constructed objects. These may incorporate regulatory requirements and will often refer out to standards or specifications for specific details on additional requirements not specified in the Code itself
Code is a rule, a rule that must be run on a project, in which there is already a design that is proven to be truly saved, so we just have to follow. Examples of code are ASME, ASTM etc.
In the code, there are lots of articles, you can get dizzy for it. I also used to be the same, I tried reading one page per page. It turned out wrong this way, my trainer said that the code is not a textbook, so it doesn't need to be read all. but at least there are certain parts that need to be read, at least once.
The code is used to obtain "acceptable" from a case, for example when welding the shell on the vessel, and there is a slight tilt (not align) at the joint, is it still possible or not? well, we look for the case in the code.
An example of the case is, there is a pipe that has less connection, there is a lack of fusion in the weld. And when the NDT test, ultrasonography, the defect is discovered and becomes a problem. And the QC does not approve it.
And here is where the role of engineering is needed, he needs to clarify whether the defect can be accepted or does it have to be re-welding? of course, it must refer to the code and standard. What do we count at that time? are we see the thickness that is still left from the defective weld, we calculate the thickness that is still left. In accordance with ASME B31.3 Para 304.1, we calculate the thickness requirements for the pipe.
Apparently, the weld thickness results that are still left are still within the safe requirement according to ASME B31.3, so we submit it to the client for consideration and also the decision maker whether this case can be accepted. Yes, of course, we don't just consider the weld thickness side, but we try to calculate it with Hope stress calculation, even with the modeling in the cesarean section to determine whether it's still safe.
Definition of Standard
Standards are documents that establish engineering or technical requirements for products, practices, methods or operations. Of particular interest to NDT personnel are those standards that provide personnel certification requirements and those that provide requirements for performing NDT tasks.
At the beginning we discussed the size of the clothes we bought, that is an example of a standard. It contains a size that is used in all places, such as the standard. Examples of standards, for example, flange size, pipe thickness, bolt size and so on.
International Standard and Local Standard
On one occasion, we tried asking the trainer about "standard drawing", does it include the standard category?
Yes, it is standard, but it is only local, local in one country, more specifically local for one particular project. What this is talking about is international standards. So standards that apply and are recognized internationally.
For example, American companies have their own standards, says API. Australia, he has his own standards, US. and Germany with its DIN. In our country Indonesia, it also has its own standards, namely SNI. But because the coverage is still small, we use a lot of American International Standards, which are usually listed in the contract project.
Example of Code And Standard International
Code and standard in oil and gas Here are a few examples of the use of international standards and codes, but again, this is just an example so we don't mention the whole being code and standard used internationally.
ASME specifications for components
ASME B 16.5, Pipe Flanges and flanged fittings - up to including NPS 24 "
ASME B 16.47, Large diameter steel flanges - NPS 26 "through 60"
ASME B 16.20, Metallic gasket for pipe flanges - Ring Joints, Spiral wound, and Jacketed
ASME B 31.3, Process piping
ASME B 31.4, Pipeline transportation System for hydrocarbon and other liquids
ASME B 36.10M, Welded, and seamless wrought steel pipe
ASME B 36.19M Stainless Steel pipe
Other Standards for equipment:
API 510, Pressure Vessel Inspector
API 570, Piping Inspector
API 579, Fitness for Service
API 620, Design of Large, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks
API 650, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage
API 653, Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and Reconstruction
API 2000, Venting of Atmospheric & Low-Pressure Tanks
API 2003, Protection Against Lightning Stray & Currents
API 2510, Design and Construction of LPG Installations
As for the mechanical, in this case, equipment, ASME is used as a code that is usually known as BPVC (Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code). The coded summary is as follows:
ASME Section I - Rules for Construction of Power Boilers
ASME Section II - Materials
ASME Section III - Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components
ASME Section IV - Rules for Construction of Heating Boilers
ASME Section V - Nondestructive Examination
ASME Section VI - Recommended Rules for Care and Operation of Heating Boilers
ASME Section VII - Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers
ASME Section VIII - Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels
ASME Section IX - Welding and Brazing Qualifications
ASME Section X - Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels
ASME Section XI - Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components
ASME Section XII - Rules for the Construction & Continued Service of Transport Tanks
Code and Standard in Project
After we mention a number of codes and standards in the project, let's look at the use of code and standards listed in the project, here are a few examples.
Why are the definitions of code and project always joined?
One chance we asked why the use of code and standards is always combined, never separate itself ... For example, the code is API 570, while the standard is Piping Inspector.
The answer is, the code is a guide to requirements, while the standard is a technical guideline. The code is more a legal rule, where standards can also be a code if it has become the guideline of one or more government agencies and it becomes a legal basis.