API 510 Training For Pressure Vessel Inspector
What is Pressure Vessel
First, let us know what is a pressure vessel? And what is the use of a pressure vessel? An easy and basic question about a pressure vessel. Maybe some of us understand, but sometimes we find it difficult to explain what the pressure vessel is. The vessel itself is a vessel, or it is interpreted as a place. From the word meaning directly from English, the vessel itself has a place. So anything in the form of a place, that's a vessel. Like pots, buckets, it can also be interpreted as a vessel, but it is not like the vessel we mean here.
Pressure vessel itself is a place that is used to store fluid, both in conditions that are pressurized or not pressurized. If translated from the language of books, written by Eugene f. Megyesy, a pressure vessel is defined as a container of metal (steel) which is usually cylindrical or spherical, which can withstand certain loads.
If we see (for example if we passing in an oil processing area) and there is an object that is like the picture above, that is the vessel. For mechanics, especially technical people, vessels are not strange things. Especially for those of you who work in the field of oil and gas, including some fields of processing will usually use vessels. It does not need to be far away, the LPG gas cylinders at home, it is also a pressure vessel with the type of fluid in the form of gas.
what is the use of the vessel?
Many actually, but the most common thing and taken from its meaning, the vessel itself is a place. So it is only a place. Then if it is just a place, why should you use everything closed? Why not make it like a pan, which we can sometimes open it on?
It's simple, we even need to close the pot sometimes, what for? So the contents in it are not dirty. That's how simple it is. In the vessel itself, there are also those that have a surface that is not closed, we usually call it a tank. In the tanks themselves, some are closed, some are not, in the sense that they are tightly closed, no air can come in or out. Another function of the pressure vessel is to separate, or better known as the separator. That is where the fluid in the form of oil, will then be separated through this vessel and divided according to the type of fluid.
Pressure Vessel Distribution
Pressure vessels are divided into several types basically, but we can share them in a simple way that is based on their position. The two most common divisions, vertical and horizontal pressure vessels.
Horizontal pressure vessel, as the name implies, is placed horizontally.
As with the picture above, laying it flat. What distinguishes the vertical vessel is the type of support. Horizontal pressure vessels use saddle type support. As for vertical, it uses a type of support skirt or leg. On the other hand, vertical pressure vessels do not use too much space because they are placed in vertically. However, from the height, he will be affected by wind speed.
Then what is the understanding of leg or not? If the leg is as the name implies, that is in the form of a foot, support or support of a pressure vessel is in the form of legs that can number three or four. Whereas if it is a skirt, according to the term of the language, it is like a skirt, meaning that it covers the vessel itself. Usually, the support in the form of a skirt is a sheet, a sheet that covers it, so it is certainly stronger.
There is one more type of support for vertical pressure vessels, namely, lug. Where the vessel will be supported not from below, but in the middle of the center of the vessel itself. But this type of support is rarely used, only a few special conditions when used.
The Difference Between a Vertical or Horizontal Pressure Vessel
The difference is in terms of process. The process person determines whether the vessel uses a vertical or horizontal type. But from one side, according to oil and gas production handbook written by Havard Devold, vertical vessels are used for separators (separators) which use gravity as a separating medium. As we know, if the density of a fluid is renewed by gravity, the fluid above has a period of a lower type than the one below. So that with this vertical vessel, the fluid will be easier to separate.
For vessels that are mostly in the form of gases, the vertical type is more suitable because the filter is water droplets through the mist extractor. Whereas for horizontal type, there is usually a lot of liquid fluid content compared to gas. Because what most important is the separation of liquid fluid, for example, oil with water.
Therefore, vertical pressure vessels are usually column types. For some types or parts of vessels, such as saddles.
Distribution of vessels based on the process
Basically, Pressure Vessels can be seen the process that occurs inside just by looking at the name. Indeed, some of you are not the people of the process, but it doesn't hurt us to learn about the process so that we know what happened in the vessel. And in the end we know, what piping design is suitable for around the vessel. For the naming or classification of pressure vessels, there is no standard rule in it. Some literature states that if the vessel is a container containing pressurized fluid. Whereas to load non-pressurized fluid is called a drum, therefore the drum is entered into the tank category. The problem is that the tank is not used to load fluid that is pressurized, while the vessel is used to load pressurized fluid.
1. Separator vessel
Separator is a type of vessel used to separate. As the name implies, separate which means separating. Usually it is used to separate water, oil, and gas from the crude oil that enters this vessel.
Separator itself is divided into two types, namely test separator and production separator. The definition is that the separator test is used to measure the level of production from a well, from here we know what the production rate is. As for the production separator, he is in charge of producing. This means that oil that has been separated from water and other gases, these results will be used by the production unit. Whether sold or re-processed for purification.
Now we study the work process from the separator, look at the picture above. Crude oil that is included in the inlet channel, it still contains elements of water and gas. The element is then separated inside the separator.
Water (which is blue) which has a higher type, then it will always be below and it will then be held back by bevel. While oil (which is black) will be continued, because it has a lower type, then it is on the water. As for the gas content, it will remain on top and then released through the gas line itself. Each of the three phases is not mixed and separated through each outlet.
From the results that have been separated, it is usually still not perfect. Therefore in a plant usually consists not only of one separator, usually after the first separation there will be a second level separation by 2 stage separators or if necessary to 3 levels of separation to ensure the quality of the separated fluid is good enough. For the separator itself, there are not only horizontal vessels, there are also vertical separators.
2. Drum vessel
Drum Vessel is a type of vessel that is used to hold fluid, so its main task is to hold fluid from either the destilator or condenser. The fluid is then pumped to another process, to the disposal or even to the production unit.
Included in the drum category is the type used for refluxing, surge, suction and other types of liquid collector. If divided in general, drums like vessels can be divided into horizontal or vertical drums.
These drums, some can stand alone, some are related to other equipment. For example reflux drum, because it re-flows the fluid, so the location is usually bonded with the pump as a tool for flowing fluid.
This drum can be divided into several types, including:
a. Drum Separator
Some of the conferences said that the separator is a type of drum because it holds fluid.
b. Reflux Accumulator Drum
In general, the reflux accumulator is a horizontal vessel type without an internal part (empty vessel, which is not filled with anything) which is responsible for collecting fluid and then flowing it back into the fractionation top tray.
c. Knockout Drum
This type of drum is in charge of collecting fluid from a pipe that still has gas content. The fluid is separated by using a demister, a fluid collector like a filter, after the fluid has accumulated it will fall down by the gravity force.
d. Flash Drum
Is a type of vessel that is used to evaporate all or part of a high-pressure (liquid) liquid by placing it on a low-pressure vessel.
e. Blowdown Drum
Is a type of vessel that is used to safely collect and remove residual gas from a system into the air.
A reactor is a type of vessel used for chemical reactions. This vessel contains a catalyst (a substance such as flour which functions as an intermediate for other substances) then the catalyst is returned (regenerates) into the reactor for reuse.
3. Tower vessel
Tower or the term column, a column is the main equipment in a facility process. A column is usually in the form of a vertical vessel, in a plant it is most prominent because the vessel shape is the highest itself compared to the other vessels. This tower is used to filter and separate the raw material (crude oil) which still consists of various types of phases, also called the fractionation column.
As we know, crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons that have different boiling points. Between 38c and 760.
API 510 Pressure Vessel Inspector
Pressure vessels according to one literature, the vessel is considered the heart of a processing and chemical industry. What caused it? because there is a process that occurs in a pressure vessel. In the reactor, there are chemical changes. In a column or tower fractionation, the separation process occurs. Therefore, the placement of the vessel both from the orientation and location of the nozzle becomes an important consideration.
API 510 - Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alteration - is an inspection code developed and published by the American Petroleum Institute (API). The code covers inspection, repair, alteration, and rerating activities for pressure vessels and the pressure relieving devices that protect vessels covered by the code. The most recent edition (10th) was released in May 2014.
API 510 applies to most refining and chemical processing vessels that have been placed into service. However, API 510 can also be applied in other industries where pressure vessels are used at the discretion of the operator.
API 510 Training Course
API Authorized Pressure Vessel Inspectors must have a broad knowledge base relating to maintenance, inspection, repair, and alteration of pressure vessels. The API 510 Certification Preparation is designed to equip the professional with such information and understand the exam format. The course will prepare the professional with both parts of the exam, with the closed and open book portion.
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