API 936 - Refractory Material Design, Application, Installation and Inspection

M. El-Sayed Mahmoud Shama

API 936 - Refractory Material Design, Application,  Installation and Inspection

API 936 Refractory Technology: Refractory technology has changed significantly in recent years as new monolithic materials have replaced brick in many industries. Vibratable and pumpable castables with superior properties, as well as significantly improved brick, ceramic fiber products, and other items, make optimum refractory selection complex.

Advanced construction methods must be utilized if these improved materials are to achieve their maximum service life.  This course includes a review of refractory fundamentals while emphasizing selection and construction techniques for a variety of applications in refineries, chemical plants, industrial furnaces, incinerators, and utility boilers.

The course covers practical guidelines for inspecting and repairing existing linings, criteria for field testing and accepting new installations, and vendor certification of materials prior to shipment.

    • Day 1

    Registration and Coffee
    Welcome and Introduction
    Pre – Test
    Introduction of Refractories:
    Types and Classifications
    Test Procedures
    Effects of Additives
    Why Chemistry alone is not a Critical Factor
    Phase Relationships
    Fracture Mechanics
    Refractory Inspection and Quality Control:
    Acceptance / Rejection Criteria
    Sampling and Testing
    Records and Reports
    Quality Control
    Material and Installer 
    Case Study: Damage in Heater

    Day 2

    Casable and Plastic Refractories
    Compositions and Properties
    Design and Installation
    Effects of Firing on Strength and Thermal Properties
    Case Study: Damage in Incinerator

    Day 3

    Refractory Installation Techniques:
    Modern Refractory State-of-the-Art
    Self-Flow, Vibe/Pump Cast, Gunite/Shotcrete, 
    Rammed Plastics
    Precast Modules
    Storage & Handling
    Maintenance Practice
    Refractory Repairs:
    Failure Analyses
    Structual (Anchors, Erosion)
    Chemical (Proces Reactions, Slag Attack)
    Thermal (Impingement, Spalling, Fusion)
    Case Study: Damage in Boiler

    Day 4

    Furnace Linings:
    Design of Various Refractory Lining Types
    Thermal Curing and Drying
    Explosive Spalling
    Effects of Aggressive Atmospheres
    Refractory Selection Guidelines:
    Data Sheet Interpretation
    Product Choices for Design Exposures
    Castable, Plastic, Fiber and Brick Selection-
    Criteria for FCB and MSW
    Boilers, Incinerators, Gasifiers and Heaters
    Case Study: Damage in Reactor

    Day 5

    Refinery Application Refractories:
    FCCU Applications
    Effects of Coking
    Transfer Lines
    Sulfur Plants
    Creep Tests
    Hot Spot Detection
    Case Study: Damage in sea pipeline &
    thermo-couples problem related to refractory. 
    Course Conclusion
    Presentation of Course Certificates

What is API 936 training course objective?

  • Upon the successful completion of this course, each participant will be able to:

    • Design, apply, install and inspect refractory material in a professional manner
    • Describe the refractory types and classification, test procedures, effects of additives and explain why chemistry alone is not a critical factor
    • Emphasize the refractory phase relationships and fracture mechanics
    • Inspect and quality control the refractory that includes acceptance/rejection criteria, sampling and testing as well as material and installer certification
    • Discuss monolithic including castable and plastic refractories, compositions and properties, anchorage, design and installation and the effects of firing on strength and thermal properties
    • Employ the refractory installation techniques including modern refractory state of the art, precast modules, storage & handling, failure analyses, etc.
    • Carryout refractory repairs and design various refractory linings
    • Employ and apply the refractory selection guidelines from data sheet interpretation and product choice for designed exposure
    • Determine and practice the refinery application of refractories including FFCU applications, effects of coking, reformers, transfer lines, Sulphur plants as well as the stacks, creep tests and hot spot detection

Who should join API 936 training course by PetroSync?

This course provide an overview of all significant aspect and considerations of refractory for those who are responsible for refractory design, application, installation, and inspection.

M. El-Sayed Mahmoud Shama

International Certified Trainer

Mohamed Shama is a senior inspection engineer with over 23 years of extensive experience within the petrochemical, refinery, utilities and oil and gas industries.

He conducted training for API Certification Preparatory, Corrosion and Prevention, National Board and ASMPE PCC-2, ASME VIII Division 1 & 2, ASME V, ASME IV, Lifting Equipment Courses, CSWIP 3.2 and 3.1 Welding Courses, Pressure Relief Valves, NDT Techniques Training Courses.

He has experiences and involve in many huge shutdowns in the oil and gas field including supervision of inspectors and technicians and performing internal inspection for all kind of Piping Systems, Pressure Vessels, Tanks, Boilers, Heat Exchangers, Filters, Towers, Coolers, Columns, Drums and Incinerators, Heaters, Driers, Air Vessels, MCHE, Hot Oil Waste Heat Recovery Units, Spheres, ISO-Containers, Bullets and all kind of refractory materials shaped and un-shaped.


  • Code PST0438-202301
  • Start Date 04 Dec, 2023
  • End Date 08 Dec, 2023
  • Locations Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Cost USD 3150
  • Register
  • Code PST0438-202302
  • Start Date 11 Dec, 2023
  • End Date 15 Dec, 2023
  • Locations Bali, Indonesia
  • Cost USD 3350
  • Register
  • Code PST0438-202303
  • Start Date 18 Dec, 2023
  • End Date 22 Dec, 2023
  • Locations Bandung, Indonesia
  • Cost USD 3150
  • Register
Code Start Date End Date Locations Cost Instructor Register
PST0438-202301 04 Dec, 2023 08 Dec, 2023 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia USD 3150 M. El-Sayed Mahmoud Shama Register
PST0438-202302 11 Dec, 2023 15 Dec, 2023 Bali, Indonesia USD 3350 M. El-Sayed Mahmoud Shama Register
PST0438-202303 18 Dec, 2023 22 Dec, 2023 Bandung, Indonesia USD 3150 M. El-Sayed Mahmoud Shama Register