API 936 - Refractory Material Design, Application, Installation and Inspection

M. El-Sayed Mahmoud Shama

API 936 - Refractory Material Design, Application,  Installation and Inspection

API 936 Refractory Technology: Refractory technology has changed significantly in recent years as new monolithic refractory materials have replaced brick in many industries. Vibratable and pumpable castables with superior properties, as well as significantly improved brick, ceramic fiber products, and other items, make optimum refractory selection complex.

Advanced construction methods must be utilized if these improved materials are to achieve their maximum service life.  This course includes a review of refractory fundamentals while emphasizing selection and construction techniques for a variety of applications in refineries, chemical plants, industrial furnaces, incinerators, and utility boilers.

The API 936 covers practical guidelines for inspecting and repairing existing linings, criteria for field testing and accepting new installations, and vendor certification of materials prior to shipment.

    • Day 1

    Registration and Coffee
    Welcome and Introduction
    Pre – Test
    Introduction of Refractories:

    Types and Classifications

    Test Procedures
    Effects of Additives
    Why Chemistry alone is not a Critical Factor
    Phase Relationships
    Fracture Mechanics

    Refractory Inspection and Quality Control:
    Acceptance / Rejection Criteria
    Sampling and Testing
    Records and Reports
    Refractory Quality Control
    Material and Installer 
    Case Study:
    Brick Failure
    Cracking in Monolithic Lining

    Day 2

    Casable and Plastic Refractories
    Compositions and Properties
    Design and Installation
    Effects of Firing on Strength and Thermal Properties
    Case Study: 
    SRU Brick Lining
    Acid Gas Incinerator Refractory Damage

    Day 3

    Refractory Installation Techniques:
    Modern Refractory State-of-the-Art
    Self-Flow, Vibe/Pump Cast, Gunite/Shotcrete, 
    Rammed Plastics
    Precast Modules
    Storage & Handling
    Maintenance Practice
    Refractory Repairs:
    Failure Analyses
    Structual (Anchors, Erosion)
    Chemical (Proces Reactions, Slag Attack)
    Thermal (Impingement, Spalling, Fusion)
    Case Study:
    Study Exposure to Thermal Cycle in FCUU
    Fibber Modules fallen from the Roof

    Day 4

    Furnace Linings:
    Design of Various Refractory Lining Types
    Thermal Curing and Drying
    Explosive Spalling
    Effects of Aggressive Atmospheres
    Refractory Selection Guidelines:
    Data Sheet Interpretation
    Product Choices for Design Exposures
    Castable, Plastic, Fiber and Brick Selection-
    Criteria for FCB and MSW
    Boilers, Incinerators, Gasifiers and Heaters
    Case Study: 
    Failing Brick Walls Deformations or Collapse Castable Cracking

    Day 5

    Refinery Application Refractories:
    FCCU Applications
    Effects of Coking
    Transfer Lines
    Sulfur Plants
    Creep Tests
    Hot Spot Detection
    Case Study: 
    Flare Brick Failure
    Regeneration Heater H 1301 Accident Result
    Course Conclusion

What is API 936 training course objective?

  • Upon the successful completion of this course, each participant will be able to:

    • Design, apply, install and inspect refractory materials in a professional manner
    • Describe the refractory types and classification, test procedures, effects of additives and explain why chemistry alone is not a critical factor
    • Emphasize the refractory phase relationships and fracture mechanics
    • Inspect and quality control the refractory that includes acceptance/rejection criteria, sampling and testing as well as material and installer certification
    • Discuss monolithic refractories including castable and plastic refractories, compositions and properties, anchorage, design and installation and the effects of firing on strength and thermal properties
    • Employ the refractory installation techniques including modern refractory state of the art, precast modules, storage & handling, failure analyses, etc.
    • Carryout refractory repairs and design various refractory linings
    • Employ and apply the refractory selection guidelines from data sheet interpretation and product choice for designed exposure
    • Determine and practice the refinery application of refractories including FFCU applications, effects of coking, reformers, transfer lines, Sulphur plants as well as the stacks, creep tests and hot spot detection

Who should join API 936 training course by PetroSync?

This course provide an overview of all significant aspect and considerations of refractory for those who are responsible for refractory design, application, installation, and inspection.

You are also welcome to enroll in our class If you aspire to become an API 936 inspector.

M. El-Sayed Mahmoud Shama

International Certified Trainer

Mohamed Shama is a senior inspection engineer with over 23 years of extensive experience within the petrochemical, refinery, utilities and oil and gas industries.

He conducted training for API Certification Preparatory, Corrosion and Prevention, National Board and ASMPE PCC-2, ASME VIII Division 1 & 2, ASME V, ASME IV, Lifting Equipment Courses, CSWIP 3.2 and 3.1 Welding Courses, Pressure Relief Valves, NDT Techniques Training Courses.

He has experiences and involve in many huge shutdowns in the oil and gas field including supervision of inspectors and technicians and performing internal inspection for all kind of Piping Systems, Pressure Vessels, Tanks, Boilers, Heat Exchangers, Filters, Towers, Coolers, Columns, Drums and Incinerators, Heaters, Driers, Air Vessels, MCHE, Hot Oil Waste Heat Recovery Units, Spheres, ISO-Containers, Bullets and all kind of refractory materials shaped and un-shaped.


  • Code PST0438-202401
  • Start Date 22 Apr, 2024
  • End Date 26 Apr, 2024
  • Locations Bandung, Indonesia
  • Cost USD 3250
  • Code PST0438-202402
  • Start Date 19 Aug, 2024
  • End Date 23 Aug, 2024
  • Locations Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Cost USD 3250
  • Register
  • Code PST0438-202403
  • Start Date 26 Aug, 2024
  • End Date 30 Aug, 2024
  • Locations Bandung, Indonesia
  • Cost USD 3250
  • Register
  • Code PST0438-202404
  • Start Date 11 Nov, 2024
  • End Date 15 Nov, 2024
  • Locations Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Cost USD 3250
  • Register
  • Code PST0438-202405
  • Start Date 18 Nov, 2024
  • End Date 22 Nov, 2024
  • Locations Bandung, Indonesia
  • Cost USD 3250
  • Register
  • Code PST0438-202301
  • Start Date 04 Dec, 2023
  • End Date 08 Dec, 2023
  • Locations Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Cost USD 3150
Code Start Date End Date Locations Cost Instructor Register
PST0438-202401 22 Apr, 2024 26 Apr, 2024 Bandung, Indonesia USD 3250 M. El-Sayed Mahmoud Shama
PST0438-202402 19 Aug, 2024 23 Aug, 2024 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia USD 3250 M. El-Sayed Mahmoud Shama Register
PST0438-202403 26 Aug, 2024 30 Aug, 2024 Bandung, Indonesia USD 3250 M. El-Sayed Mahmoud Shama Register
PST0438-202404 11 Nov, 2024 15 Nov, 2024 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia USD 3250 M. El-Sayed Mahmoud Shama Register
PST0438-202405 18 Nov, 2024 22 Nov, 2024 Bandung, Indonesia USD 3250 M. El-Sayed Mahmoud Shama Register
PST0438-202301 04 Dec, 2023 08 Dec, 2023 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia USD 3150 M. El-Sayed Mahmoud Shama