API 571 Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining Industry

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Upcoming Course

Code Start Date End Date Location Cost Instructor Register
PST0248-202101  27 Sep 2021  01 Oct 2021  VIRTUAL TRAINING  USD 2495  Chintamani M. Khade   Register
PST0248-202102  08 Nov 2021  12 Nov 2021  VIRTUAL TRAINING  USD 2495  Chintamani M. Khade   Register

Past Course

Code Start Date End Date Location Cost Instructor Register
        Aaron A. Zick, Ph.D. 
PST0248  15 Oct 2012  19 Oct 2012  Bangi Petronas  SGD 2250  Uday B. Kale 
PST0248  10 Dec 2012  12 Dec 2012  Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  SGD 2250  Uday B. Kale 
PST0248-201401  07 Jul 2014  09 Jul 2014  Bangkok, Thailand  SGD 2250  Uday B. Kale 
PST0248-201701  24 Jul 2017  28 Jul 2017  Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  SGD 3195  Krishnamurthy Ravindran 
PST0248-201702  31 Jul 2017  04 Aug 2017  Bandung, Indonesia  SGD 3195  Krishnamurthy Ravindran 
PST0248-201801  24 Sep 2018  28 Sep 2018  Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  SGD 3195  Chintamani M. Khade 
PST0248-201802  29 Oct 2018  02 Nov 2018  Bandung, Indonesia  SGD 3195  Chintamani M. Khade 
PST0248-201803  12 Nov 2018  16 Nov 2018  Jakarta, Indonesia  SGD 3195  Chintamani M. Khade 
PST0248-201901  24 Jun 2019  28 Jun 2019  Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  USD 2595  Chintamani M. Khade 
PST0248-201902  14 Oct 2019  18 Oct 2019  Bandung, Indonesia  USD 2595  Chintamani M. Khade 
PST0248-201903  25 Nov 2019  29 Nov 2019  Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  USD 2595  Chintamani M. Khade 
PST0248-202001  02 Nov 2020  06 Nov 2020  VIRTUAL TRAINING  USD 2335  Chintamani M. Khade 

This course is based on damage mechanisms in refining, petrochemical and other process industries.

It focuses not only on different materials propertiesand process fluid characteristics but also on different processes environment parameters which leads to damage mechanisms. They can be interdependent and cause damage mechanisms to initiate, propagate individually or simultaneously.

The course also contains the useful information like material selection, design considerations, operations, necessary to determine the causes of damages/ deterioration present and probable inspection. Various examination and testing methods, other techniques for determining the type size and location of damage mechanisms, monitoring or mitigation techniques for each damage mechanism also will be explained with case studies.

Day 1

  • Introduction of Trainer & Participants
  • Bench Mark Quiz & Discussions on the same
  • Introduction and Review Of Basic Metallurgy
  • Mechanical and Metallurgical Failure Mechanisms
  • Graphitization
  • Softening (Spheroidization)
  • Temper Embrittlement
  • Strain Aging
  • 885°F (475ºC) Embrittlement
  • Sigma Phase Embritllement
  • Brittle Fracture
  • Creep and Stress Rupture
  • Punch Points
  • Quiz & Discussions

Day 2

  • Erosion/Erosion – Corrosion
  • Cavitation
  • Mechanical Fatigue
  • Vibration-Induced Fatigue
  • Refractory Degradation
  • Reheat Cracking
  • Gaseous Oxygen-Enhanced Ignition and Combustion
  • Introduction to Corrosion
  • Uniform or Localized Loss of Thickness
  • Punch Points
  • Quiz & Discussions


Day 3

  • Nett Positive Suction Head and Cavitation
  • Flue-Gas Dew-Point Corrosion
  • Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC)
  • Soil Corrosion
  • Caustic Corrosion
  • Dealloying
  • Graphitic Corrosion
  • High Temperature Corrosion [>400°F (204°C)]
  • Punch Points
  • Quiz & Discussions

Day 4

  • Environment - Assisted Cracking
  • Chloride Stress Cracking (CI-SCC)
  • Corrosion Fatigue
  • Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking (Caustic Embrittlement)
  • Amonia Stress Corrosion Cracking
  • Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME)
  • Hydrogen Embrittlement (HE)
  • Ethanol Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)
  • Sulfate Stress Corrosion Cracking
  • Refining Industry Damage Mechanisms
  • Punch Points
  • Quiz & Discussions

Day 5

  • Sour Water Corrosion (Acidic)
  • Sulfuric Acid Corrosion
  • Aqueous Organic Acid Corrosion
  • Environment-Assisted Cracking
  • Punch Points
  • Quiz & Discussions
  • Final Examinations & Feedback
  • Key parameters in each damage mechanism like material selection, design, fabrication, process control, etc.
  • Critical factors involved in damage mechanism, their prevention / mitigation and monitoring methods.
  • Assessment of various damage mechanism during Fitness for Service assesments (FFS), Remaining Life Assessments (RLA) or Risk Based Inspection Studies (RBI).
  • Selection between various tests and examinations (or combination) to identify, locate and assess damage mechanisms.
  • Mitigation methods and techniques.
  • Similarities and differences in different damage mechanisms.

This course is specifically beneficial for personnel involved in and responsible for determining cause for damage(s) / deterioration(s) observed or anticipated and for probability and degree of further damage that might occur in future during FFS assessments RLA, Risk based inspection studies etc.

It also assists inspectors and examiners to perform their tasks effectively during in service Inspection of pressure vessels, piping and tanks.

It is beneficial for engineers, supervisors and managers who are responsible for decision making during assessment of mechanical integrity or equipment reliability.

Process and plant designers can add value during material selection and design by knowing causes of damage mechanisms at those stages. Operations personnel can understand various parameters affecting the damage mechanisms. Personnel involved in mitigation / monitoring of damage mechanisms shall have knowledge of various examination and testing techniques.

Each attendee must bring a Laptop computer with Microsoft Operating System.

Aaron A. Zick, Ph.D.

Founder and President


President, Zick Technologies (Since 10/93).

Petroleum engineering consulting and software development, specializing in the area of reservoir fluid phase behavior modeling. References available on request. Key achievements:

-Developed numerous equation-of-state and black-oil fluid characterizations for various major oil companies and as a sub-contractor for Pera A/S.

-Recommended phase behavior experimentation and modeling guidelines for several major oil companies.

-Wrote PhazeComp, a new, state-of-the-art program from Zick Technologies for equation-of-state phase behavior modeling, reservoir fluid characterization, and the robust, efficient calculation of minimum miscibility conditions.

-Wrote Streamz, unique Petrostreamz A/S software for translating, manipulating, and managing vast quantities of fluid stream information.

-Designed and helped write Pipe-It, unique Petrostreamz A/S software for managing and manipulating petroleum resources, processes, and projects.

-Taught numerous industry courses on phase behavior, equations of state, reservoir fluid characterization, and miscible gas injection processes.

-Designed and helped implement a new set of equation-of-state routines for the in-house reservoir simulator of a major oil company.

-Advised the architects of a major commercial reservoir simulator on ways to significantly improve their equation-of-state routines.


Director of Research, Reservoir Simulation Research Corporation (6/91–10/93).

Responsible for the research and development of more efficient, accurate, and reliable techniques for modeling reservoir fluid phase behavior within MORE® (a fully-compositional, equation-of-state reservoir simulator). Also responsible for improving three-dimensional visualization of reservoir simulator output, and for occasional consulting work. Key achievements:

-Designed and implemented new equation-of-state solution algorithms for MORE®, improving both efficiency and robustness while using less memory.

-Developed a powerful and flexible interface between MORE® and TECPLOT™ (three-dimensional surface contouring software from AMTEC Engineering).


Senior Principal Research Engineer, ARCO Oil and Gas Company (9/83–5/91).

Developed expertise in reservoir fluid phase behavior, phase behavior modeling, compositional reservoir simulation, and relative permeability modeling.  Designed and analyzed PVT experiments. Created equation-of-state reservoir fluid characterizations. Developed ARCO’s phase behavior modeling software and relative permeability modeling software. Helped develop several of ARCO’s compositional and limited compositional reservoir simulators. Key achievements:

-Discovered the true, condensing/vaporizing mechanism of oil displace­ment by enriched hydrocarbon gases.

-Represented ARCO on the Prudhoe Bay co-owners’ Enhanced Oil Recovery Task Force for the Prudhoe Bay Miscible Gas Project.

-Designed and analyzed most of the PVT and slim-tube experiments for the Prudhoe Bay Miscible Gas Project.

-Created the equation-of-state reservoir fluid characterization adopted by the operating companies for the Prudhoe Bay Miscible Gas Project.

-Developed the miscibility pressure correlations used by the facility operators for the Prudhoe Bay Miscible Gas Project.

-Developed EOSPHASE, a then state-of-the-art program for equation-of-state phase behavior modeling, reservoir fluid characterization, and the robust, efficient calculation of minimum miscibility conditions.

-Developed SLIMTUBE, a special-purpose, equation-of-state simulator for slim-tube displacements.

-Developed new, compositionally-consistent, three-phase relative perme­ability models for ARCO’s compositional simulators and wrote data-fitting software for those models.

-Developed the phase behavior and relative permeability routines for a new, limited compositional reservoir simulator and assisted on other aspects of it.

-Continually added improvements to various in-house reservoir simulators.

-Regularly taught in-house courses on the phase behavior of miscible gas displacement processes.



A. A. Zick, “A Combined Condensing/Vaporizing Mechanism in the Displacement of Oil by Enriched Gases,” presented at the 61st Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, New Orleans, LA (October, 1986).

D. E. Tang and A. A. Zick, “A New Limited Compositional Reservoir Simulator,” presented at the 12th SPE Symposium on Reservoir Simulation, New Orleans, LA (March, 1993).