Hydraulic Fracturing Virtual Training


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Upcoming Course

Code Start Date End Date Location Cost Instructor Register
PST0427-202201  03 Oct 2022  07 Oct 2022  VIRTUAL TRAINING  USD 2995  Magdi El Naggar   Register

Past Course

Code Start Date End Date Location Cost Instructor Register
        Aaron A. Zick, Ph.D. 
PST0427-202101  15 Nov 2021  19 Nov 2021  VIRTUAL TRAINING  USD 2995  Magdi El Naggar 

This course is designed to provide better understanding, enhance knowledge and strengthen the decision making capability of the participants about Hydraulic Fracturing Operations implemented to recover or enhance well performance.

The size, cost, and critical contributions of the current hydraulic fracturing technology is driving increased requirement to evaluate fracturing treatments so that their impact under different reservoir conditions can be better understood and forecasted. Emerging technologies for implementing and evaluating hydraulic fracturing treatments willbe covered along with review of the reservoir properties which dictate suitable type of the treatment.

Through the development of hydraulic fracturing techniques, vital sources of energy have been unlocked in various coal and shale throughout the world. As the operators in Asia pacific region taking more interest and moving into unconventional gas development, this course is a perfect opportunity to be ahead and develop vital skills required for energy sources challenges coming ahead.

Efforts will be exerted at the early phase of the course to understand the geological and reservoir properties for vertical, horizontal and multilateral wells prior to developing the basic concepts of formation damage and hydraulic fracturing. Moreover, the course includes fracturing quality control, conducting treatments, monitoring pressures and other critical parameters, during and after the treatments.A vital part of the course is class teamwork whereby attendee's teams evaluate and design Frac treatments to bring out important information and parameters discussed during the course.

Day 1
Pre-course Test

Module 1 : Reservoir Characterisation

  • Definition of Reservoir
  • Reservoir Heterogeneities
  • Reservoir Characteristics
    • Porosity
    • Permeability
    • Relative Permeability
    • Saturation
    • Natural Fracturing
    • Pressures
    • Reservoir Pressure
    • Basic Pressure Calculations
    • Pressure Differential
    • Well Temperature
    • Drilling Fluids
    • Completion Fluids
    • Geological Setting
    • Rock Properties and Petrophysical Considerations

Module 2 : Well Characterisation

  • Well Drilling
  • Vertical vs. Horizontal Wells
  • Pilot Holes
  • Drilling Fluids
  • MWD and LWD
  • Wellbore sizes and Lateral
  • Drilling Challenges and Mechanical Considerations

Module 3 : Well Completions

  • Definition & Concept of Well Completion
  • Completion Classification
  • Cased vs. Open Hole
  • X-mas Tree
  • Wellhead
  • Casings
  • Liners
  • Production Tubing String
  • Packers
  • Sub-Surface Control System (SC-SSSVs)
  • Wellhead Control System
  • Artificial Lift Completions (ESP, GL)
  • Smart Completions

Module 4 : Well Perfomance Evaluation

  • Impact of Well Completion Selection on Future Operations in the Well
  • Perforation Schemes
  • Stimulation Design and Considerations
  • Production Logs
  • Production Forecasting and Reserve Calculations
  • Perfomance Analysis and Decline Curve Analysis

Module 5 : Reservoir Fluids Properties

  • Physical properties of Hydrocarbons
  • Qualitative phase behavior
  • Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
  • Water Hydrocarbon behavior

Group discussion & exercises

Day 2
Quizzes & recap

Module 6 : Introduction to Formation Damage

  • What is meant by formation damage?
  • Causes of formation damage
  • Effect of formation damage on well’s Productivity Index
  • Formation damage Indicator and consequences
  • Classification of formation damage problem
  • Diagnosis of formation damage
  • Skin and impact on well productivity 
  • Best Practice to avoid formation damage

Module 7 : Formation Damage Mechanisms

  • Formation damage laboratory tests (return permeability test, formation initiation pressure test, cake lift off test, etc.
  • Formation damage from drilling mud/processes 
  • Formation damage from perforations 
  • Formation damage from completion and workover fluid 
  • Formation damage from oil and gas production activities 
  • Formation damage from scales 
  • Formation damage from organic deposits 
  • Formation damage from Wettability changes 
  • Formation damage from Acid stimulation 
  • Formation damage from Injection (water injection, CO2 injection, polymer flooding, steam flooding
  • Case Study & Exercises
    • Formation damage magnitude and cost impact
    • Gas reservoir behaviors
    • Oil reservoir behavior
    • Sand control
    • Well productivity sudden decline and identifying proper treatment requirements
    • Production profile slope change& how to use the data in defining the problem
    • Utilizing production history graph to detect the damage
    • How to use PBU/PFO tests to identify the skin factor as indicator for formation damage.
    • Partial penetration and slanted skin effect
    • Impact of perforation skin factor

Module 8 : Wellbore Treatments Concept & Objectives

  • Introduction 
  • LOT & FIT Tests
  • Frac Pressure & Breakdown pressure Relationship
  • Formation Damage Concept
  • Fracturing operations Concept & Objectives
  • Stimulation Operations Concept & Objectives 
  • Acid Systems and Additives
  • Fundamental reminders on Productivity Index (PI), skin effect, flow efficiency and different components of the skin.
  • Productivity issues: cause of low productivity, nature and origins of well damage, location of problems and possible solutions.
  • Damage due to fluids: mechanisms and prevention.
  • Damage evaluation and selection of selection of the treatment process
  • Group discussion & exercises

Day 3
Quizzes & recap

Module 9 : Overview of Fracture Technique

  • Geomechanics I
  • Geomechanics II
  • Overview of fracture treatment
  • Why do we frac formation? Which formation we frac?
  • Fracing Vs. Stimulation in terms of formation damage removal
  • Selection of candidates
  • Fracturing treatments objectives
  • Micro-Frac
  • Step-Rate Testing
  • Near Wellbore Geometry
  • Group discussion & exercises

Module 10 : Hydraulic Fracturing

  • Rock properties and fracture mechanics related to the fracturing process
  • Basic fracturing principles
  • Frac height prediction 
  • Frac height design 
  • Frac pressure prediction 
  • Completion design for Frac well candidates 
  • Perforation strategy 
  • Fracturing fluid mechanics
  • Proppant transport
  • Pre-frac injection test analysis
  • Fracture closure
  • Fracture monitoring and fracture measurement
  • Fluid leak-off
  • Fluid selection 
  • Propping Agents and Proppant Selection 
  • Unconventional Hydraulic Fracturing 
  • Fracture Acidizing Including Matrix Acidizing 
  • Near Wellbore Tortuosity 
  • Well Diagnostics and Fracture Mechanics 
  • Quality Control for Slick Water and Acid Treatments 
  • Rigging Up On Location 
  • Re-fracturing considerations
  • Evaluation of post-frac well performance
  • Five types of technical objectives for creating a hydraulic fracture
  • Data and concepts required to select appropriate treatment interval
  • Methods for evaluating a treatment and common evaluation mistakes
  • Common mistakes in designing treatments
  • Sand Control Completion
    • Frack pack 
    • Perforating for sand control 
    • Frac pack completion: success of a frac pack, frac pack limitations, Frac pack fluids, frac pack installation and treatment procedure. 
    • Gravel pack / Frac pack evaluation
  • Case histories 

Day 4
Quizzes & recap

Module 11: Hydraulic Fracturing Treatment, Design and Quality Control

  • Introduction into Hydraulic Fracturing
  • Basic principles in fracturing 
  • Hydraulic fracturing fluids and chemicals
  • Frac height prediction 
  • Frac height design 
  • Frac pressure prediction 
  • Completion design for frac well candidates 
  • Perforation strategy 
  • Fluid selection 
  • Proppant selection 
  • Hydraulic Fracture Treatment Process
  • Hydraulic Fracture Operations & Stages
  • Rock Mechanics
  • Main Fracture Treatment Design
  • Hydraulic Fracturing Candidate Selection
  • Case Studies & Exercises
    • General Field Description
    • Well History
    • Candidate selection
    • Design, Execution and Evaluation
    • Conclusion

Module 12: Fracturing Process, Procedures & Design

  • Fracturing Fluids
  • Frac Fluids Leak-off
  • Proppants
  • Fracture Treatment Design
  • Fracturing Treatment Candidate Selection
  • Minifrac
  • Why do we Frac/Acidize wells? How we do it?
  • Acid Fracturing
  • Perforation Requirements
  • Production Prediction
  • Refracturing
  • Fracturing Evaluation
  • Case Study & Exercises
    • Pressure behavior during acid injection
    • Offset wells comparison
    • BU tests comparison Pre, During & Post treatment
    • On-site evaluation of acid treatment effectiveness

Module 13: Stimulation of Sandstone Reservoir

  • Why stimulating Sandstone reservoir? 
  • Sandstone reservoir description (mineralogy)
  • Sandstone Acidizing Fluid Chemistry
  • Sandstone Acidizing Fluid Selection
  • Sandstone Fluid Design
  • Additives 
  • Sandstone Job Design
  • Fluid Placement
  • Candidate Selection
  • Acid placement techniques
  • Coiled tubing role
  • Treatment evaluation
  • Case Study & Group Discussions 

Day 5

Module 14: Stimulation of Carbonate Reservoir

  • Why stimulating carbonate reservoir? 
  • Carbonate reservoir description (mineralogy)
  • What is the big deal about wormholes? 
  • How to ensure the best acid coverage? Open hole? Cased hole? 
  • How to ensure the best zonal coverage? 
  • Practical guidelines on how to select and evaluate acid treatment 
  • Carbonate Acidizing Fluid Chemistry
  • Carbonate Fluid Design
  • Carbonate Candidate Selection
  • Carbonate Job Design
  • Additives
  • Fluid Placement techniques
  • Matrix Treatments
  • Acid techniques
  • Coiled tubing role
  • Treatment Evaluation
  • Post-course test

Module 15 : Comparison Between Fracturing & Stimulation Techniques 

  • Concept
  • Process
  • Cones & Prones
  • Applications
  • Post-course test
  • Understand the geological and basic reservoir properties.
  • Better understand rock properties and rock mechanics related to fracturing applications.
  • Understand the formation damage concept and mechanism.
  • Understand the effect of formation damage on revenue to the operator.
  • Understand the impact of skin damage effect on productivity for both vertical and horizontal wells.
  • Better understand hydraulic fracturing and compare with various types of wellbore treatments to remove formation damage.
  • Better understand fracturing fluid mechanics and proppant transport.
  • Acquire knowledge on how to select the best fluid (less damaging) at every phase of the well development: drilling, completion, cementing, perforating, stimulation, gravel packing, workover, production and injection operations.
  • Understand fracturing fluid mechanics and Proppant transport.
  • Understand the factors influencing hydraulic fracturing applications.
  • Use pre-frac injection test data and real-time fracturing treatment data in fracturing applications to define fracture parameters and improve frac treatment design.
  • Consider factors influencing post-frac fracture conductivity and well cleanup.
  • Develop an overall understanding of advanced drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques.
  • Learn about the importance of the correct fluid and Proppant selection on Treatment of high permeability reservoir.
  • Best practices for rigging up and operation on location.
  • Develop understanding of shale and water frac applications.
  • More effectively design fracturing treatments through better understanding of factors influencing hydraulic fracturing applications.
  • Realize the strengths and limitations of existing hydraulic fracturing technology and fracture models.
  • Expand fracturing applications to fit a wider range of reservoir types and conditions process.
  • Operations Engineers with 0-10 Years Experience
  • Operations Supervisors with 0-10 Years Experience
  • Production Engineers with 0-10 Years Experience
  • Petroleum Engineers with 0-10 Years Experience
  • Reservoir Engineers with 0-10 Years Experience
  • Drilling Engineers with 0-10 Years Experience
  • Field Service Engineers with 0-10 Years Experience
  • Completion Engineers with 0-10 Years Experience
  • Geophysicists with 0-10 Years Experience
  • Geologists with 0-10 Years Experience
  • Technical Support Staffs with 0-10 Years Experience

Aaron A. Zick, Ph.D.

Founder and President

Biography


President, Zick Technologies (Since 10/93).

Petroleum engineering consulting and software development, specializing in the area of reservoir fluid phase behavior modeling. References available on request. Key achievements:

-Developed numerous equation-of-state and black-oil fluid characterizations for various major oil companies and as a sub-contractor for Pera A/S.

-Recommended phase behavior experimentation and modeling guidelines for several major oil companies.

-Wrote PhazeComp, a new, state-of-the-art program from Zick Technologies for equation-of-state phase behavior modeling, reservoir fluid characterization, and the robust, efficient calculation of minimum miscibility conditions.

-Wrote Streamz, unique Petrostreamz A/S software for translating, manipulating, and managing vast quantities of fluid stream information.

-Designed and helped write Pipe-It, unique Petrostreamz A/S software for managing and manipulating petroleum resources, processes, and projects.

-Taught numerous industry courses on phase behavior, equations of state, reservoir fluid characterization, and miscible gas injection processes.

-Designed and helped implement a new set of equation-of-state routines for the in-house reservoir simulator of a major oil company.

-Advised the architects of a major commercial reservoir simulator on ways to significantly improve their equation-of-state routines.

 

Director of Research, Reservoir Simulation Research Corporation (6/91–10/93).

Responsible for the research and development of more efficient, accurate, and reliable techniques for modeling reservoir fluid phase behavior within MORE® (a fully-compositional, equation-of-state reservoir simulator). Also responsible for improving three-dimensional visualization of reservoir simulator output, and for occasional consulting work. Key achievements:

-Designed and implemented new equation-of-state solution algorithms for MORE®, improving both efficiency and robustness while using less memory.

-Developed a powerful and flexible interface between MORE® and TECPLOT™ (three-dimensional surface contouring software from AMTEC Engineering).

 

Senior Principal Research Engineer, ARCO Oil and Gas Company (9/83–5/91).

Developed expertise in reservoir fluid phase behavior, phase behavior modeling, compositional reservoir simulation, and relative permeability modeling.  Designed and analyzed PVT experiments. Created equation-of-state reservoir fluid characterizations. Developed ARCO’s phase behavior modeling software and relative permeability modeling software. Helped develop several of ARCO’s compositional and limited compositional reservoir simulators. Key achievements:

-Discovered the true, condensing/vaporizing mechanism of oil displace­ment by enriched hydrocarbon gases.

-Represented ARCO on the Prudhoe Bay co-owners’ Enhanced Oil Recovery Task Force for the Prudhoe Bay Miscible Gas Project.

-Designed and analyzed most of the PVT and slim-tube experiments for the Prudhoe Bay Miscible Gas Project.

-Created the equation-of-state reservoir fluid characterization adopted by the operating companies for the Prudhoe Bay Miscible Gas Project.

-Developed the miscibility pressure correlations used by the facility operators for the Prudhoe Bay Miscible Gas Project.

-Developed EOSPHASE, a then state-of-the-art program for equation-of-state phase behavior modeling, reservoir fluid characterization, and the robust, efficient calculation of minimum miscibility conditions.

-Developed SLIMTUBE, a special-purpose, equation-of-state simulator for slim-tube displacements.

-Developed new, compositionally-consistent, three-phase relative perme­ability models for ARCO’s compositional simulators and wrote data-fitting software for those models.

-Developed the phase behavior and relative permeability routines for a new, limited compositional reservoir simulator and assisted on other aspects of it.

-Continually added improvements to various in-house reservoir simulators.

-Regularly taught in-house courses on the phase behavior of miscible gas displacement processes.

 

IMPORTANT PUBLICATIONS

A. A. Zick, “A Combined Condensing/Vaporizing Mechanism in the Displacement of Oil by Enriched Gases,” presented at the 61st Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, New Orleans, LA (October, 1986).

D. E. Tang and A. A. Zick, “A New Limited Compositional Reservoir Simulator,” presented at the 12th SPE Symposium on Reservoir Simulation, New Orleans, LA (March, 1993).